Background and objectives: Despite the significant achievements in recent decades to control viral hepatitis worldwide, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections remain a matter of significant public health concern. Both viruses are transmitted primarily by orofecal route and are present higher in communities with poor sanitation. They cause a disease that is indistinguishable without serologic testing. Prevalence of HEV is less frequent even in endemic areas (7.8–45%), compared to HAV infection (up to 100% in low-income countries). The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of HAV and HEV and to study their seasonal variations.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study over a period of 3 years. Serum samples from patients suspected of viral hepatitis were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seasonal trends of HAV and HEV were also studied.
Results: The overall percentage positivity for HAV and HEV was 15.4% and 13.9% and the prevalence was more in the males. Majority of cases of HAV infection were in the age-group of 11–20 years, whereas HEV infection was predominant in the age-group of 21–30 years. There was a year-wise increasing trend of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. On comparing the seasonal trends, hepatitis A was more during the monsoon (17.6%) and hepatitis E was more during the summer season (15.1%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis A was more when compared to hepatitis E, and majority of the patients were males.
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