Journal of Gastrointestinal Infections

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 1 ( December, 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Transmission of Enteropathogens through Fresh Herbs and Method of using them as Safe Condiments

Rumpa Saha, Himanshi Grover, Malvika Singh, Sungtila T Jamir, Bhoomika Saxena, Amir M Khan, Narendra P Singh

Keywords : Coriander, Enteropathogens, Fresh produce, Mint

Citation Information : Saha R, Grover H, Singh M, Jamir ST, Saxena B, Khan AM, Singh NP. Transmission of Enteropathogens through Fresh Herbs and Method of using them as Safe Condiments. J Gastrointest Infect 2018; 8 (1):22-27.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10068-0016

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background and objectives: As an indispensable dietary component, fresh fruits and vegetables, which are often consumed raw, have been reported to harbor large microbial populations often culminating in enteric disease outbreaks. The present study aimed to assess the microbial quality of coriander and mint and find the efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in effectively removing such microbes. Materials and methods: Ten grams each of fresh, unstored green coriander (n = 50) and mint (n = 50) samples were examined for their parasitic and bacterial content before and after washing with tap water and with an aqueous solution of 0.001% KMnO4. The different species of bacteria, as well as their main burden in these herbs, were also estimated along with the parasites they harbored. Results: Only 22% unwashed herbs harbored parasites which were reduced to a significant number on washing with tap water. One hundred percent of the herb samples before washing, and 98% of tap water washed herb samples were contaminated with bacteria. A total of 33 different species of bacteria were isolated, from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (56.3%) Pseudomonadaceae (15.6%), Vibrionaceae (9.4%,), and Acinetobacteriaceae (6.2%). These bacteria were significantly removed after treatment with KMnO4. Conclusion: The study reveals the presence of harmful enteric bacteria and parasites in fresh green coriander and mint which are liable to cause enteric diseases. We recommend that all the fresh produce which is consumed raw should be treated with 0.001% KMnO4 after tap water washing to render them safe for consumption.


PDF Share
  1. Sharma V, Hussainm S, Gupta M, Saxena AK. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha spp. against human cancer cells. Indian J Biochem Biophy 2014;51:35-38.
  2. Bhat S, Kaushal P, Kaur M, Sharma HK. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): Processing, nutritional and functional aspects. African J Plant Sci 2014;8(1):25-33.
  3. Darughe F, Barzegar M, Sahari MA. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil in cake. Int Food Res J 2012;19(3):1253-1260.
  4. Dhiman R, Aggarwal N, Aneja KR, Kaur M. In vitro antimicrobial activity of species and medicinal herbs against selected microbes associated with juices. Int J Microbiol 2016;1:4-6.
  5. Johnson M, Wesely EG, Kavitha MS, Uma V. Antibacterial activity of leaves and internodal callus extracts of Mentha arvensis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;1:197-200.
  6. Kumar P, Mishra S, Sharma AK. Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium species. J Food Sci Technol 2016;53:17-20.
  7. Lin KH, Yang Y, Yang CM, Huang MY, Lo F, Liu KC, et al. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against peroxide induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. BMC Res notes 2013;6:2-4.
  8. Londonkar RL, Poddar PV. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals. World J Gastrointest Oncol 2009;1(1):82-88.
  9. Oliveira M, Usall J, Vinas I, Anguera M, Gatius F. Microbiological quality of fresh lettuce from organic and conventional production. Food Microbiol 2010;27:679–684.
  10. Rastogi G, Sbodio A, Tech JJ, Suslow TV, Coaker GL. Leaf microbiota in an agro ecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce. ISME Journal. 2012;6(10):1812.
  11. Jonathan WL, Noah F. Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surfaces of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. PLoS ONE 2013;8(3):e59310.
  12. Fatica MK, Schneider KR. Salmonella and produce: Survival in the plant environment and implications in food safety. Virulence 2011;2:573-579.
  13. Harris LJ, Farber JN, Beuchat LR, Parish ME, Suslow TV. Outbreaks associated with fresh produce: Incidence, growth, and survival of pathogens in fresh and fresh-cut produce. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2003;2:78-141.
  14. Berg G, Erlacher A, Smalla K, Krause R. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our ‘gut feeling’? Microbiol Biotech 2014; 7(6): 487-495.
  15. Lozupone CA, Stombaugh JI, Gordon JI, Jansson JK, Knight R. Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature 2012;489(7415):220-230.
  16. Willhite C, Bhat V, Ball G, McLellan C. Emergency: Do Not Consume/Do Not Use concentrated form of potassium permanganate in drinking water. Hum Exp Toxicol 2013;32(3):257-298.
  17. Stalder JF, Fleurym M, Sourissem M, Allavoinem T, Chalametm C, Brosset P, et al. Comparative effects of two topical antiseptics (chlorhexidine vs KMnO4) on bacterial skin flora in atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm-Venereol Suppl (Stockh) 1992;176: 132-134.
  18. mpcb.gov.in – Biomedical waste management guidelines 2016.
  19. R Core Team . R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria; 2017.
  20. Mohamed MA, Siddig EE, Elaagip AH, Edris AMM, Nasr AA. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2016;15:17.
  21. Damen JG, Banwat EB, Egah DZ, Allanana JA. Parasitic Contamination of Vegetables in Jos, Nigeria. Ann African Med 2007;6:115-118.
  22. Bekele F, Tefera T, Biresaw G, Yohannes T. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Infect Dis Poverty 2017;6:19.
  23. Sia SuGL, Mariano CMR, Matti NSA, Ramos GB. Assessing parasitic infestation of vegetables in selected markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2(1):51-54.
  24. Haburchak DR. Medical Parasitology. Austin (Texas): Landes Bioscience;2009.p38.
  25. Eraky MA, Rashed SM, Nasr ME, El-Hamshary AM, Salah El- Ghannam A. Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Journal of parasitology research. 2014;2014.
  26. Adjrah Y, Karou DS, Djeri B, Anani DB, Soncy K, Ameyapoh K, et al. Hygienic quality of commonly consumed vegetables and perception about disinfecting agents in Lomé. Int Food Res J 2011;18(4):1499-1503.
  27. Söderqvist K, Osman OA, Wolff C, Bertilsson S, Vågsholm I, Boqvist S. Emerging microbiota during cold storage and temperature abuse of ready to-eat salad. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2017;7:1-9.
  28. Al-Kharousi ZS, Guizani N, Al-Sadi AM, Al-Bulushi IM, Shaharoona B. Hiding in fresh fruits and vegetables: opportunistic pathogens may cross geographical barriers. International journal of microbiology. 2016;2016.
  29. Nguyen C, Carlin F. The microbiology of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1994; 34: 371-401.
  30. Satpathy G, Tyagi YK, Gupta RK. Removal of Organophosphorous (OP) Pesticide Residues from Vegetables Using Washing Solutions and Boiling. J Agric Sci 2012;4(2):69-78.
  31. Hanski I, Von Hertzen L, Fyhrquist N, Koskinen K, Torppa K, Laatikainene T, et al. Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 2012;109:8334–8339.
  32. Gram L, Ravn L, Rasch M, Bruhn J B, Christensen A B, Givskov M. Food spoilage–interactions between food spoilage bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 78: 79-97.
  33. Flores GE, Bates ST, Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Leff JW, Knight R, et al. Diversity, distribution and sources of bacteria in residential kitchens. Environ Microbiol 2012;15(2):588-596.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.