Journal of Gastrointestinal Infections

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 1 ( 2017 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Epidemiology and Genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus: A First Study from Jammu (J & K), India

Monika Sharma, Mamta Sharma, Shelly Sehgal, Shashi S Sudhan, Konika Razdan, Bharti Pandita

Keywords : Chronic liver disease, Genotyping, Hepatitis C virus, Seroprevalence.

Citation Information : Sharma M, Sharma M, Sehgal S, Sudhan SS, Razdan K, Pandita B. Epidemiology and Genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus: A First Study from Jammu (J & K), India. J Gastrointest Infect 2017; 7 (1):9-14.

DOI: 10.5005/jogi-7-1-9

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017 Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Background and objectives: Globally, around 200 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). India contributes a big proportion of HCV burden with the prevalence estimated between 0.5 and 1.5%. Northeastern tribal populations and areas of Punjab represent the HCV infection hotspots, while in Western and Southern parts of the country, the prevalence is lower. The distribution of HCV genotypes is highly variable. This study was particularly planned to attain knowledge of the prevalent HCV genotypes in Jammu province of Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) state. Materials and methods: Blood samples of patients attending the Department of Medicine, Government Medical College (GMC), Jammu and Kashmir, India, for HCV testing were subjected to serological test at Department of Microbiology, GMC, Jammu. The serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were subjected to genotyping. Conclusion: Of the 396 samples tested, 33 (8.33%) were found to be HCV positive and 23 of these were included for genotyping. Genotypes 3 and 1 were detected in this region and this was in accordance with other national studies. There is a need for larger field studies to better understand the HCV epidemiology and identify higher prevalence areas and also the distribution of genotypes of HCV. This, being a maiden study from this region, will shed light to allow apposite choice and target efforts for better management of the disease and reduce the burden of chronic liver disease due to HCV.


PDF Share
  1. WHO. Hepatitis C Fact sheet. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
  2. Ray K. The global burden of viral hepatitis is increasing. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Sep;13(9):499.
  3. Dore GJ, Freeman AJ, Law M, Kaldor JM. Is severe liver disease a common outcome for people with chronic hepatitis C? J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002 Apr;17(4):423-430.
  4. Poynard T, Yuen MF, Ratziu V, Lai CL. Viral hepatitis C. Lancet 2003 Dec;36(9401):2095-2100.
  5. Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 2014 Nov;61(1 Suppl):S45-S57.
  6. Noorali S, Pace DG, Bagasra O. Of lives and livers: emerging responses to the hepatitis C virus. J Infect Dev Ctries 2011 Feb;5(1):1-17.
  7. Moradpour D, Penin F, Rice CM. Replication of hepatitis C virus. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007 Jun;5(6):453-463.
  8. Lu L, Li C, Fu Y, Gao F, Pybus OG, Abe K, Okamoto H, Hagedorn CH, Murphy D. Complete genomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes 6c, 6l, 6o, 6p and 6q: completion of a full panel of genomes for HCV genotype 6. J Gen Virol 2007 May;88(Pt 5):1519-1525.
  9. Bostan N, Mahmood T. An overview about hepatitis C: a devastating virus. Crit Rev Microbiol 2010 May;36(2):91-133.
  10. Romano CM, de Carvalho-Mello IM, Jamal LF, de Melo FL, Iamarino A, Motoki M, Pinho JR, Holmes EC, Zanotto Pm; The VGDN Consortium. Social networks shape the transmission dynamics of hepatitis C virus. PLoS One 2010 Jun;5(6):e11170.
  11. Satsangi S, Dhiman RK. Combating the wrath of viral hepatitis in India. Indian J Med Res 2016 Jul;144(1):1-5.
  12. Narahari S, Juwle A, Basak S, Saranath D. Prevalence and geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Indian patient cohort. Infect Genet Evol 2009 Jul;9(4): 643-645.
  13. Gowri V, Chandraleka C, Vanaja R. The current seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care centre in Vellore, Tamil Nadu. Indian J Community Med 2012 Apr-Jun;37(2):137.
  14. Ciotti M, D’Agostini C, Marrone A. Advances in the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterol Res 2013 Oct;6(5):161-170.
  15. Raghuraman S, Abraham P. HCV genotyping in India – Quo vadis? Indian J Med Res 2004 Apr;119(4):ix-xi.
  16. Okamoto H, Sugiyama Y, Okada S, K Kurai, Akahane Y, Sugai Y, Tanaka T, Sato K, Tsuda F, Miyakawa Y, et al. Typing hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers: application to clinical surveys and tracing infectious sources. J Gen Virol 1992 Mar;73(Pt 3):673-679.
  17. Okamoto H, Kobata S, Tokita H, Inoue T, Woodfield GD, Holland PV, Al-Knawy BA, Uzunalimoglu O, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M. A second-generation method of genotyping hepatitis C virus by the polymerase chain reaction with sense and antisense primers deduced from the core gene. J Virol Methods 1996 Mar;57(1):31-45.
  18. Sandres-Sauné K, Deny P, Pasquier C, Thibaut V, Duverlie G, Izopet J. Determining hepatitis C genotype by analyzing the sequence of the NS5b region. J Virol Methods 2003 May;109(2):187-193.
  19. Trinks J, Gadano A, Argibay P. Evolving trends in the hepatitis C virus. Molecular epidemiology studies: from the viral sequences to the human genome. Epidemiol Res Int 2012 Jan;2012:856810.
  20. Rajani M, Jais M. Age-wise seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in clinically suspected infectious hepatitis patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Int J Med Public Health 2014 Jan;4(1):81.
  21. Mishra S, Chayani N, Sarangi G, Mallick B, Pati SB. Seroprevalence of anti HCV antibody in and around Cuttack, Orissa. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002 Jan-Mar;20(1):40-41.
  22. Sharma R, Sinha P, Bachiwal R, Rishi S. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies in a hospital based population in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J Community Med 2007 May;32(2):158-159.
  23. Bhattacharya S, Badrinath S, Hamide A, Sujatha S. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in a hospital based general population in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003 Jan-Mar; 21(1):43-45.
  24. Schwarz TF, Dobler G, Gilch S, Jager G. Hepatitis C and arboviral antibodies in the isolated population of Mauritius and Rodrigues. J Med Virol.1994; 44: 379-383.
  25. Frommel D, Tekla HR, Berhe N, Aussel L, Verdier M, Preux PM et al, and Denis, F. A survey of antibodies to Hepatitis C virus in Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hygiene. 1993; 49: 435-439.
  26. Khan MSA, Khalid M, Ayub N, Javed M. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Mardan, NWFP: a hospital based study. RMJ. 2004; 29(2): 57-60.
  27. Alsamarai AM, Abdulrazaq G, Alobaidi AH. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in Iraqi population. Juniper Online J Immuno Virol 2016 Dec;1(3):1-9.
  28. Sodhi JS, Parveen S, Saif R. New horizons and perspectives in the management of chronic hepatitis C. J Med Sci 2010;13(2):41-47.
  29. Westbrook RH, Dusheiko G. Natural history of hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2014 Nov;61(1 Suppl):S58-S68.
  30. Chakravarti A, Dogra G, Verma V, Srivastava AP. Distribution pattern of HCV genotypes and its association with viral load. Indian J Med Res 2011 Mar;133(3):326-333.
  31. Das BR, Kundu B, Khanapkar R, Sahni S. Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2002 Jul;45(3):323-328.
  32. Medhi S, Goswami B, Das AK, Singh TB, Husain SA, Sehgal A, Kar P. New insights into hepatitis C virus infection in the tribal-dominant part of Northeast India. Arch Virol 2012 Nov;157(11):2083-2093.
  33. Raghuraman S, Abraham P, Sridharan G, Ramakrishna BS. Hepatitis C virus genotype 6 infection in India. Indian. J Gastroenterol 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):72-75.
  34. Raghuraman S, Abraham P, Sridharan G, Daniel HD, Ramakrishna BS, Shaji RV. HCV genotype 4 – an emerging threat as a cause of chronic liver disease in Indian (south) patients. J Clin Virol 2004 Dec;31(4):253-258.
  35. Umer M, Iqbal M. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genotype distribution in Pakistan: comprehensive review of recent data. World J Gastroenterol 2016 Jan;22(4):1684-1700.
  36. Esmaeilzadeh A, Erfanmanesh M, Ghasemi S, Mohammadi F. Serological assay and genotyping of hepatitis C virus in infected patients in Zanjan province. Hepat Mon 2014 Sep;14(9):e17323.
  37. Mittal G, Gupta P, Gupta R, Ahuja V, Mittal M, Dhar M. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Uttarakhand, India. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2013 Dec;3(4):296-300.
  38. Sarma MP, Asim M, Medhi S, Bharathi T, Diwan R, Kar P. Viral genotypes and associated risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma in India. Cancer Bio Med 2012 Sep;9(3):172-181.
  39. Mi Ullah, F Hasan, Najmudin, MM Alam, SSZZ, MS Rana, M Nawaz, S Rehman and A A Shah. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Kohat Division, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan J Zool 2016;.48(6):1721-1725.
  40. Ramarokoto CE, Rakotomanana F, Ratsitorahina M, Raharimanga V, Razafindratsimandresy R, Randremanana R, Rakoto-Andrianarivelo M, Rousset D, Andrianaja V, Richard V, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in urban areas of Antananarivo, Madagascar. BMC Infect Dis 2008 Feb;8:25.
  41. Singh P, Kaur R, Kaur A. Frequency distribution of Hepatitis C virus in different geographical regions of Punjab: retrospective study from a tertiary care centre in North India. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014 Jan;5(1):56-58.
  42. Sandhu R, Dahiya S. Prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies among inpatients and outdoor attendees of a tertiary care institute. Br Biomed Bull 2015 Jan;3(1):8-14.
  43. Da Ros CT, Schmitt CdaS. Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Asian J Androl 2008 Jan;10(1): 110-114.
  44. Te HS, Jensen DM. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses: a global overview. Clin Liver Dis 2010 Feb;14(1):1-21.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.