Citation Information :
Mahajan R, Gupta V, Chitkara S. A Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Seropositive Cases of Leptospirosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ludhiana City, India. J Gastrointest Infect 2017; 7 (1):5-8.
Introduction: Leptospirosis, an infectious disease caused by spirochetes Leptospira, is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Humans acquire infection through contact with the urine of infected or carrier animals, either directly or through contaminated water or soil. There are only few reports documenting the serological evidence of leptospirosis in northern India.
Aims and objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile patients and to study their clinical and laboratory profile.
Materials and methods: It is a prospective study conducted over a period of 1 year from April 2015 to March 2016. Febrile patients with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis admitted in the hospital were included in the study. Leptospira immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the serum samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm the diagnosis. Serologically confirmed patients of leptospirosis were studied for their clinical presentation and laboratory parameters.
Results: The seroprevalence of leptospirosis in this study was 4% (147/3,661). Leptospirosis was most prevalent in the age group of 46 to 55 years. Male predominance was seen. Maximum number of cases was seen in the months of August and September. Common clinical manifestations were jaundice (57.1%), abdominal pain (40.1%), abdominal distension (27.2%), and myalgia (28.5%). Hepatomegaly (53%) was the predominant clinical sign observed. Laboratory parameters revealed leukocytosis (68.7%), thrombocytopenia (52.3%), and transaminitis (78.2%). Hepatic failure (20.4%) was the most common complication.
Conclusion: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases was 4%, indicating male predominance and seasonal variation. There is the need to review the importance of adding leptospirosis to differential diagnosis of febrile illness.
Levett, PN.; Haake, DA. Leptospira species (leptospirosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier/Saunders; 2015. pp. 2789-2794.
Hartskeer RA. Leptospirosis: current status and future trends. Ind J Med Microbiol 2006 Oct;24(4):309.
Himani D, Suman MK, Mane BG. Epidemiology of leptospirosis: an Indian perspective. J Foodborne Zoonotic Dis 2013 Jul-Sep;1(1):6-13.
Sethi S, Sharma N, Kakkar N, Taneja J, Chatterjee SS, Banga SS, Sharma SS. Increasing trends of leptospirosis in northern India: a clinico-epidemiological study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Jan;4(1):e579.
Vaishnavi, C. Leptospirosis. In: Al-Mehtab M, Rahman S, editors. Liver: a complete book on hepato-pancreato-biliary diseases. Mahtab: Elsevier Publishers; 2009. pp. 445-456.
Schreier S, Doungchawee G, Chadsuthi S, Triampo D, Triampo W. Leptospirosis: current situation and trends of specific laboratory tests. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2013 Mar;9(3): 263-280.
Ooteman MC, Vago AR, Koury MC. Evaluation of MAT, IgM ELISA and PCR methods for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. J Microbiol Methods 2006 May;65(2):247-257.
Khaki P. Clinical laboratory diagnosis of human leptospirosis. Internat J Enteric Pathogens 2016 Feb;4(1):e31859.
Chen HW, Zhang Z, Halsey ES, Guevara C, Canal E, Hall E, Maves R, Tilley DH, Kochel TJ, Ching WM. Detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies using a recombinant antigenbased enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013 Dec;89(6):1088-1094.
Bawane RS, Shiekh N, Ingole KV, Bhise M. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in tertiary care hospital Solapur: a retrospective study. International J Appl Res 2016 Apr;2(5):183-185.
Sahira H, Jyothi R, Ramani Bai JT. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile patients—a hospital based study. J Academia Industrial Res 2015 Mar;3(10):481-484.
Prabhakar PK, Harish BN, Rao RS. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis among febrile and jaundice patients. Ind J Med Microbiol 1995;13(4):189-191.
Deodhar D, John M. Leptospirosis: experience at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. Nat Med J India 2011 Mar- Apr;24(2):78-80.
Sambasiva RR, Naveen G, Bhalla P, Agarwal SK. Leptospirosis in India and the rest of the world. Brazilian J Infectious Dis 2003 Jun;7(3):178-193.
Patil VC, Patil HV, Agrawal V. Clinical profile and outcome of leptospirosis at tertiary care centre in western Maharashtra. J Acad Med Sci 2012 Dec;2(1):30-37.
Shivakumar S, Krishnakumar B. Diagnosis of leptospirosisrole of MAT. J Assoc Physicians India 2006 Apr;54:338-339.
Angnani R, Pathak AA, Mishra M. Prevalence of leptospirosis in various risk groups. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003 Oct- Dec;21(4):271-273.
Chandrasekaran S. Review on human leptospirosis. Indian J Med Sci 1999 Jul;53(7):291-298.