Citation Information :
Mahajan R, Gupta V. A Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Seropositive Cases of Leptospirosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ludhiana City, India. J Gastrointest Infect 2017; 7 (1):5-8.
Introduction: Leptospirosis, an infectious disease caused by spirochetes Leptospira, is the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Humans acquire infection through contact with the urine of infected or carrier animals, either directly or through contaminated water or soil. There are only few reports documenting the serological evidence of leptospirosis in northern India.
Aims and objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile patients and to study their clinical and laboratory profile.
Materials and methods: It is a prospective study conducted over a period of 1 year from April 2015 to March 2016. Febrile patients with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis admitted in the hospital were included in the study. Leptospira immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the serum samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm the diagnosis. Serologically confirmed patients of leptospirosis were studied for their clinical presentation and laboratory parameters.
Results: The seroprevalence of leptospirosis in this study was 4% (147/3,661). Leptospirosis was most prevalent in the age group of 46 to 55 years. Male predominance was seen. Maximum number of cases was seen in the months of August and September. Common clinical manifestations were jaundice (57.1%), abdominal pain (40.1%), abdominal distension (27.2%), and myalgia (28.5%). Hepatomegaly (53%) was the predominant clinical sign observed. Laboratory parameters revealed leukocytosis (68.7%), thrombocytopenia (52.3%), and transaminitis (78.2%). Hepatic failure (20.4%) was the most common complication.
Conclusion: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases was 4%, indicating male predominance and seasonal variation. There is the need to review the importance of adding leptospirosis to differential diagnosis of febrile illness.
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