Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a key cause of diarrheal illness due to outbreaks by the hypervirulent C. difficile NAP1/027 strain. The mainstay and time-honored antibiotic therapies for the management of CDI apart from killing C. difficile, also disturbs the standard healthy gut flora leading to dysbiosis. Mismanagement of antibiotics has led to a widespread increase in antibiotic resistance which has jeopardized the efficacy of antibiotics. This article has shed some light on the present-day vista of non-antibiotic approaches to combat CDI which include bacteriotherapy (fecal microbiota transplant, probiotics, non-toxigenic C. difficile spores), immunoglobulin therapy (monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, bovine antibodies, whey protein concentrate, colostrum, C. difficile vaccine), photodynamic therapy and other miscellaneous therapies like the use of adsorbents, prebiotics and corticosteroids.
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