Journal of Gastrointestinal Infections

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 1 ( 2015 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Campylobacter infections and Guillain Barré syndrome

Chetana Vaishnavi

Keywords : Campylobacter, GBS, lipooligosaccharide

Citation Information : Vaishnavi C. Campylobacter infections and Guillain Barré syndrome. J Gastrointest Infect 2015; 5 (1):13-19.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-jogi-5-1-13

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2015

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Guillain Barreé syndrome (GBS) is a serious disorder of the peripheral nerves preceded by a recognized acute infectious illness. Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important pathogen precipitating GBS and the structure of C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) might have a role in the outcome of infection. The development of GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome has been reported to be due to expression of a GM1 like LOS in class A strains and GQ1b like LOS in class B strains of C. jejuni respectively. Virulence of C. jejuni, subtle differences in the interaction between different strains with the host T lymphocyte receptor and MHC class II and host susceptibility may have a role to play in the development of GBS. A humoral immunopathogenic mechanism for GBS has been envisaged as the disease develops 1 to 3 weeks after C. jejuni infection. Antibodies to C. jejuni may remain elevated for several weeks after acute infection. Host susceptibility factors are also important in the pathogenesis of GBS as this disease occurs within families. Association between the occurrence of GBS and a particular HLA type has been envisaged, but studies to prove it are inconclusive. Despite our increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of GBS, the triggering event leading to the disease is still indeed a great puzzle. This review describes the in-depth association of Campylobacter infections with GBS.


PDF Share
  1. Hughes RAC, Cornblath DR. Guillain Barré syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366:1653-66.
  2. Mishu B. Association between Campylobacter infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Infect Dis.1997;176:125-8.
  3. Winer JB, Hughes RAC, Anderson MJ, Jones DM, Kangro H, Watkins RPF. A prospective study of acute idiopathic neuropathy. II. Antecedent events. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1998;51:613-8.
  4. Hao Q, Saida T, Kuroki S, Nishimura M, Nukina M, Obayashi H et al. Antibodies to gangliosides and galactocerebroside in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with preceding Campylobacter jejuni and other identified infections. J Neuroimmunol.1998; 81:116-26.
  5. Jacobs BC, Rothbarth PH, Van der Meche FGA, Herbrink P, Schmitz PIM, De Klerk MA et al. The spectrum of antecedent infections in Guillain-Barré syndrome. A case control study. Neurol. 1998; 51:1110-5.
  6. Mishu B, Blaser MJ. Role of infection due to Campylobacter jejuni in the initiation of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Infect Dis.1993;17:104-8.
  7. Ho TW, Mishu B, Li CY, Gao CY, Cornblath DR, Griffin JW, et al. Guillain Barré Syndrome in Northern China relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection and anti-glycolipid antibodies. Brain. 1995;118:597-605.
  8. Koga M, Ang CW, Yuki N, Jacobs BC, Herbrink P, vander Meche FGA. Comparative study of preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome in Japan and The Netherlands. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 2001;70:693-5.
  9. Kuroki S, Saida T, Nukina M, Haruta T, Yoshioka M, Kobayashi Y et al. Campylobacter jejuni strains from patients with Guillain- Barré syndrome belong mostly to Penner serogroup 19 and contain B-N-acetylglucosamine residues. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:243-7.
  10. Tauxe RV. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in the United States and other industrialized nations. In: Nachamkin I, Blaser M J, Tompkins L S, editors. Campylobacter jejuni: current status and future trends. Washington, D.C: Am Soc Microbiol. 1992;9-19.
  11. Buzby JC, Roberts T, Allos BM. Estimated annual costs of Campylobacter-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome. Agricultural Economic Report No. 756, July 1997.
  12. Rhodes KM, Tattersfield AE. Guillain Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection (letter). Br Med J. 1982; 285-652.
  13. Molnar GK, Mertsola J, Erkko M. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection. Br Med J.1982;285:652.
  14. Constant OC, Bentley CC, Denman AM, Lehane JR, Larson HE. The Guillain-Barré syndrome following Campylobacter enteritis with recovery after plasmapheresis. J Infect.1983;6:89-91.
  15. Speed B, Kaldor J, Cavanagh P. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. J Infect.1984;8:85-6.
  16. Kaur U, Chopra JS, Prabhakar S, Radhakrishnan K, Rana S: Guillain-Barré syndrome: a clinical electrophysiological and biochemical study. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986;73:394-402.
  17. Hadden RD, Gregson NA. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni infection. Symp Ser Soc Appl Microbiol. 2001;30:145-54.
  18. Steininger C. Clinical relevance of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with disorders of the immune system. Clin. Microbiol Infect.2007;13:953-63.
  19. Pradhan S, Sinha S, Prasad N, Jain D, Pandey CM, Jha S. Preceding infections and anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain Barré syndrome: a single centre prospective casecontrol study. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2007;13:334-7.
  20. Gorthi SP, Kapoor L, Chaudhry R, Sharma N, Perez-Perez GI, Panigrahi P, et al. Guillian- Barré syndrome: Association with Campylobacter jejuni and Mycoplasma pneumonia infections in India. Natl Med J India. 2006; 19:137-9.
  21. Hariharan H, Naseema K, Kumaran C, Shanmugam J, Nair MD, Radhakrishnan K. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni/C.coli infection in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome by serology and culture. New Microbiol. 1996;19:267-71.
  22. Sharma A, Lal V, Modi M, Vaishnavi C, Prabhakar S. Campylobacter jejuni infection in Guillain Barré syndrome; A prospective case control study in a tertiary care hospital. Neurol India. 2011; 59:717-21.
  23. Vaishnavi C, Behura C, Prabhakar S, Sharma A, Kharbhanda P. Anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain Barré syndrome and other neurological disorders. Ind. J Med. Microbiol. 2013;31:177-9.
  24. Vaishnavi C, Behura C, Prabhakar S. Automatic Evaluation of Test Strips for Anti-Ganglioside Antibodies in Patients with Guillain Barré Syndrome Using EUROLineScan Software. Adv. in Microbiol. 2014;4:890-8.
  25. Schmidt-Ott R, Schmidt H, Feldmann S, Brass F, Krone B, Gross U. Improved Serological Diagnosis. Stresses the Major Role of Campylobacter jejuni in Triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:779-83.
  26. Fugimoto S, Amako K. Guillain Barré syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni infection. Lancet. 1990;335:1350.
  27. McCarthy N, Giesecke J. Incidence of Guillain Barré syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Am. J Epidemiol. 2001;153:610-4.
  28. Kuwabara S. Guillain Barré syndrome: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Drugs. 2004;64:597-610.
  29. Yuki N. Guillain–Barré syndrome and anti-ganglioside antibodies: a clinician-scientist's journey Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2012;88:299-326.
  30. Ellstrom P, Feodoroff B, Hanninen ML, Rautelin H. Lipooligosaccharide locus class of Campylobacter jejuni: sialylation is not needed for invasive infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:524-9.
  31. Gilbert M, Godschalk PCR, Parker CT, Endtz HP, Wakarchuk WW. Genetic bases for the variation in the lipooligosaccharide outer core of Campylobacter jejuni and possible association of glycosyltransferase genes with post-infectious neuropathies. In: Ketley J, Konkel M, editors. Campylobacter: molecular and cellular biology. Norwich, UK. Horizon Scientific Pres. 2005;219- 48.
  32. Godschalk PCR, Heikema AP, Gilbert M, Komagamine T, Ang CW, Glerum J et al. The crucial role of Campylobacter jejuni genes in autoimmune antibody induction. J Clin Invest. 2004; 114, 1659-65.
  33. Koga M, Gilbert M, Takahashi M, Li J, Koike S, Hiratlal K et al. Comprehensive analysis of bacterial risk factors for the development of Guillain Barré syndrome after Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. J Infectious Dis. 2006;193:547-55.
  34. Saida T, Kuroki S, Hao Q, Nishimura M, Nukina M, Obayashi H. Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Japanese species with Guillain Barré syndrome. J Infectious Dis. 1997;176:129-34.
  35. Parker CT, Horn ST, Gilbert M, Miller WG, Woodward DL, Mandrell RE. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni LOS biosynthesis loci from a variety of sources. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2771-81.
  36. Huizinga R, van den Berg B, van Rijs W, Tio-Gillen AP, Fokkink WJ, Bakker-Jonges LE et al. Innate immunity to Campylobacter jejuni in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol. 2015 May 27. doi: 10.1002/ana.24442. [Epub ahead of print]
  37. Takahashi M, Koga M, Yokoyama K, Yuki N. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni-isolated Guillain Barré and Fisher syndrome in Japan. J Clin. Microbiol. 2005;43:335-39.
  38. Yuki N, Takahashi M, Tagawa Y, Kashiwase K, Tadokoro K, Saito K. Association of Campylobacter jejuni serotype and antiganglioside antibody in Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher's syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1997;42:28-33.
  39. Enders U, Karch H, Toyka KV, Michels M, Zielasek J, Pette M et al. The spectrum of immune responses to campylobacter jejuni and glycoconjugates in Guillain Barré syndrome and in other neuroimmunological disorders. Annals Neurol. 1993;34:136-44.
  40. Lastovica AJ, Goddard EA, Argent AC. Guillain-Barré syndrome in South Africa associated with Campylobacter jejuni O:41 strains. Clin. Infect. Dis.1997;176:S139-S143.
  41. Goddard EA, Lastovica AJ, Argent AC. Campylobacter O:41 isolation in Guillain Barré syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1997;76:526-8.
  42. Allos BM. Association between Campylobacter infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Infect Dis.1997;176:S125-S128
  43. Hughes RAC, Hadden RDM, Gregson NA, Smith KJ. Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neuroimmunol. 1999;100:74-97.
  44. Kaldor J, Speed BR. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni: a serological study. Br. Med. Journal. 1984;288:1867-70.
  45. Ogawara K, Kuwabara S, Mori M, Hattori T, Koga M, Yuki N. Axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome: relation to anti-ganglioside antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni infection in Japan. Ann Neurol. 2000,48:624-31.
  46. Willison HJ, Kennedy PGE: Gangliosides and bacterial toxins in Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;46:105-12.
  47. Illa I, Ortiz N, Gallard E, Juarez C, Grau JM, Dalakas MC. Acute axonal Guillain–Barré syndrome with IgG antibodies against motor axons following parenteral gangliosides. Ann Neurol. 1995;38:218-24.
  48. Plomp JJ, Willison HJ. Pathophysiological actions of neuropathyrelated anti-ganglioside antibodies at the neuromuscular junction J Physiol. 2009;587:3979-99.
  49. Yuki N, Taki T, Inagaki F, Kasama T, Takahashi M, Saito K et al. A bacterium lipopolysaccharide that elicits Guillain-Barré syndrome has a GM1 ganglioside structure. J Exp Med. 1993;178:1771-5.
  50. Heikema AP, Islam Z, Horst-Kreft D, Huizinga R, Jacobs BC, Wagenaar JA et al. Campylobacter jejuni capsular genotypes are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Jun 9. pii: S1198-743X(15)00563-7. doi: 10.1016 / j.cmi. 2015. 05. 031. [Epub ahead of print]
  51. Oomes PG, Jacobs BC, Hazenberg MPH, Bänffer JRJ, Van der Meché FGA. Anti-GM1 IgG antibodies and Campylobacter bacteria in Guillain–Barré syndrome: evidence of molecular mimicry. Ann. Neurol.1995;38:170-5.
  52. Xie LS, Cai FC, Gao YX, Zhang XP. Damage to peripheral nerves induced by Campylobacter jejuni exotoxin].[Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2003;41:934-9.
  53. Rees JH, Vaughan RW, Kondeatis E, Hughes RAC. HLA-class II alleles in Guillain-Barré syndrome and Miller Fisher syndrome and their association with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection. J Neuroimmunol. 1995;62:53-5.
  54. Yuki N, Koga M: Bacterial infections in Guillain-Barré and Fisher syndromes. Curr Opin Neurol. 2006; 19:451-7.
  55. Vriesendorp FJ, Mishu B, Blaser MJ, Koski CL. Serum antibodies to GM1, GD1b, peripheral nerve myelin, and Campylobacter jejuni in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and controls: correlation and prognosis. Ann Neurol.1993;34:130-5.
  56. Rees JH, Soudain SE, Gregson NA, Huges RAC. Campylobacter jejuni infection and Guillain Barré syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1374-9.
  57. Nachamkin I, Allos BM, Ho T: Campylobacter species and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clin Microbiol Review. 1998;11:555-67.
  58. Blaser MJ, Duncan DJ. Human serum antibody response to Campylobacter jejuni infection as measured in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Infect Immun. 1984;292-8.
  59. Mishu B, Ilyas AA, Koski CL, Viresendorp F, Cook SD, Mithen FA et al. Serologic evidence of previous Campylobacter jejuni infection in patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:947-53.
  60. Gruenewald R, Ropper AH, Lior H, Chan J, Molinaco VS. Serological evidence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli enteritis in patients with Guillain Barré syndrome. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:1080-2.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.