Background and objectives: Diarrheal diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Among diarrheagenic agents, Shigella should be emphasized because of its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. The present study was done to study the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella isolates in stool.
Materials and methods: Stool samples were collected from cases of dysentery and diarrhea in the laboratory from Jan 2009 to Dec 2013. The specimens were processed and inoculated as per standard protocol. The susceptibility of Shigella serogroups to different antibiotics was done as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antibiotic susceptibility between different Shigella serogroups was compared and trends of drug resistance to various antimicrobial agents over a period of five years was seen.
Results: Of a total of 6117 samples, Shigella serogroups were isolated in 74 (1.2%) samples. S. flexneri was the most common serogoup identified followed by S. boydii and S. sonnei. Yearwise isolation of Shigella serogroups was 1.58% in 2009 which decreased to 0.38% in 2013. All Shigella serogroups showed higher sensitivity to ciprofloxacin as compared to nalidixic acid, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin.
Interpretation and conclusion: There is a significant increase in resistance to several commonly used antimicrobial agents. The rapid increase in ciprofloxacin resistance, especially in S. flexneri, is a major cause of concern. The results suggest reconsideration of the empiric use of these antimicrobial agents for the treatment of shigellosis.
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