Journal of Gastrointestinal Infections

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VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 1 ( 2014 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

An Overview of Bacterial Diarrheas

Chetana Vaishnavi

Citation Information : Vaishnavi C. An Overview of Bacterial Diarrheas. J Gastrointest Infect 2014; 4 (1):4-11.

DOI: 10.5005/jogi-4-1-4

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Diarrhea is a major public health problem in developing countries resulting in heavy economic burden. Various pathogenic bacteria affect the gastrointestinal tract and produce abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. These bacteria are mainly acquired through contaminated water and food. The important ones among them are Vibrios, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter, Clostridia, Yersinia, Klebsiella and Aeromonas. Proper sewage disposal and other sanitary hygiene such as proper hand washing must be maintained in the community in order to prevent diarrhea, as ingestion of fecal contaminated water is the primary route of transmission of the pathogens. Safe drinking water is another requisite to fight against the problem of diarrhea. Adequate chlorination of water easily kills organisms such as that of cholera and safeguards against bacterial diarrhea. Salads prepared from materials washed in contaminated water or handled by unhygienic hands are also important vehicles of transmission of pathogenic bacteria. Reheating of refrigerated food kept at room temperature for a very long time also perpetuates spores and may lead to food poisoning. All these preventive measures when taken into account can help to reduce the burden of diarrheal episodes. However despite preventive measures if diarrhea occurs, restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance in the form of oral rehydration therapy is of paramount importance in the management of the illness.


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